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Landscape Architecture And Garden Design - Melbourne Australia
In Australia it has not traditionally been important for the house holder to employ a landscape designer or landscape architect often feeling that this is within their own expertise. However in recent years, people have come to realise that they do not have either the skill or design ability to create a fully sustainable and coherent garden design to suit their lifestyle and choose plants suitable for the size and climatic conditions of their area.
Botanical Traditions - Landcape Architecture (Melbourne, Australia)
At Botanical Traditions we strive to capture the imagination with landscape design that enhances the constructed environment. The goal of all our garden design is to maximise the quality of indoor and outdoor living while at the same time providing cost effective sustainable returns for our clients.
Professional Landscape and Horticultural Design Our landscape design team consists of designers, horticulturists and strategic thinkers committed to mixing art with design and technology. We pride ourselves on having a strong partnership with our clients and other related professionals, such as landscapers and paving firms, to create beautiful, functional landscape and horticultural designs that really are an asset to their surroundings and the garden and lifestyle of their owners.
The Roman Landscape [750 BMA - 400MA]
The Romans carried out landscape design on a scale not seen again until recently. They left a strong imprint on the land. The Romans designed large urban open spaces with perforated edges. These public open spaces were designed to keep the masses entertained “ a point highlighted in the movie Gladiator. They combined garden and lifestyle ideas from the Greeks, Etruscans, Persians and Egyptians. In comparison to their public environments their residential site developments were typically inward looking.
The Greek Landscape [3000BMA - 31BMA]
Stretching over many centuries the Greek design style still has an impact on garden design today. Buildings were generally simple and symmetrical but many exhibited optical corrections. They also created optimum viewing points and used the proportions of the ˜Golden Section'. Typically a house was built around 1 or 2 garden rooms called a ˜peristyle'.
The Gardens of Islam [600BMA - 1700]
The Koran states that individuals should try to create paradise on earth and it defines paradise as a garden with shade and water. All Islamic gardens are enclosed and provide privacy. The gardens are typically square in plan and are entered through an impressive gate. There is usually a main axis which is often a body of water which can be crossed by other axis. The gardens never have any depiction of the human form but will use elaborate patterns instead.
The Gardens of China [1700BMA - today]
Chinese gardens typically have a strong natural character in many cases influenced by the natural countryside, painters and poets, mythology, philosophy and social background of the time. Chinese landscape design represents the longest period of continuous development of any garden style.
The Landscape of Japan [650 - 1870]
Japanese gardens are designed for repose. They do not try to copy nature but to idealise and abstract it. Typically they have no geometric order. They is carefull attention given to the transition between the inside and outside areas.
The Landscape of Renaissanc Italy [1400 - 1700]
During this period of time there were two distinct periods “ the Mannerist and the Baroque. In Mannerist designs the aim was not to create harmony but to use tricks to create astonishing affects. Baroque design originated in Rome and was chiefly interested in creating spectacular displays.
The Renaissance Landscape of France
Many medieval built forms such as moats, corner towers and steep roofs were retained in France long after they had been abandoned in other countries. There were three distinct periods during the French Renaissance. In the early 16th century there was a strong Italian influence, followed by a brief period of transition and experimentation which resulted in a distinctive Baroque French Grand Style.
The Landscape of England
The English landscape has been influenced by the many different groups of people that have inhabited the land. Medieval developments in England were typically centred around the residential environment. During the 17th century ideas from Italy and France were incorporated into the English landscape on a small scale. It was not until the early 18th century and the emergence of the English Landscape School that landscape design was applied on a large scale. It was also at this time that the artistic ideas of unity, harmony, contrast, balance and focus began to be explored in landscape design.
The 19th Century English Garden
This period was one of rapid social change with the industrial revolution. The urban areas expanded and the provision of public recreational spaces became important. Botanical Gardens were established in most major towns and many royal estates were opened to the public. In the 1830's gardening magazines emerged as did a wider selection of plants. There were many notable designers from this period and they include Joseph Paxton, William Robinson and Gertrude Jekyll. Some designers through this period searched for a local style which used indigenous plants to create a national character rather than relying on the many new introduced plants at the time.
The American Colonial Landscape
The English, French, Dutch and Spanish all had an influence on early American landscape design. There were three distinct phases in colonial site developments. The early colonial period was characterised by a strongly utilitarian style. This was followed by the Jefferson period which was characterised by eclecticism and palladianism such as Monticello. The last period lasted from 1800 “ 1860 and was characterised by eclecticism and neo-classicism. Public open space was provided in towns.
The 19th Century American Landscape
This was a period of great change and expansion in the United States. There was a period of great social change and after the civil war there was a greater focus on providing public parks in cities. Two major designers at the time were Andrew Jackson Downing and Frederick Law Olmstead. There was a strong belief that the environment could influence human behaviour and the first state parks were formed during this period.
Department of Landscape
University of Sheffield